Fighting Ice With...Ice?
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This series of images (click to enlarge) shows an aluminum sample with elevated grooves after 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours in a supersaturated environment. You can see that the ice is contained to the elevated grooves and grows upward over time. However, the ice stripes disrupted the usual behavior. There, the ice stripes grew upward, away from the surface. For example, we’d need a method for patterning ice stripes on a large object.

Vaccines Need Not Completely Stop COVID Transmission to Curb the Pandemic
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According to Dawn Bowdish, a professor of pathology and molecular medicine at McMaster University, this so-called sterilizing immunity was a key factor in eliminating smallpox. “The [smallpox] vaccination caused sterilizing immunity, meaning that you don’t carry any of the virus. Sterilizing immunity may have been a lofty goal for COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers, though not necessary to curb disease. The oral polio vaccine (OPV) generates localized intestinal immunity, preventing infection and protecting against disease and transmission. But ample precedent points to vaccines driving successful containment of infectious diseases even when they do not provide perfectly sterilizing immunity.

The ‘Shared Psychosis’ of Donald Trump and His Loyalists
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The violent insurrection at the U.S. Capitol Building last week, incited by President Donald Trump, serves as the grimmest moment in one of the darkest chapters in the nation’s history. One such person is Bandy X. Lee, a forensic psychiatrist and president of the World Mental Health Coalition. Expert on the psychology of Donald Trump and his supporters says their behavior can be explained by a “narcissistic symbiosis” and “shared psychosis.” Tayfun Coskun Getty ImagesDo you think Trump is truly exhibiting delusional or psychotic behavior? And (3) fixing the socioeconomic conditions that give rise to poor collective mental health in the first place. And the situation with Trump supporters is very similar.

Humans May Have Befriended Wolves with Meat
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How did dogs become humans’ best friend? Well, one idea is that docile wolves flocked to waste dumps near human camps. Writing in the journal Scientific Reports, she and her colleagues present a different hypothesis: that humans purposely shared their leftovers with wolves instead. And they found there likely would have been more than enough meat to go around. That’s because humans can’t survive on protein alone—but wolves can for months.

Time Has No Meaning at the North Pole
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At the North Pole, 24 time zones collide at a single point, rendering them meaningless. At Earth’s other pole, time zones are quirky but rooted in utility. At the North Pole, it’s all ocean, visited only rarely by an occasional research vessel or a lonely supply ship that strayed from the Northwest Passage. What we think of as a single day, flanked by sunrise and sunset, happens just once per year around the North Pole. So I can’t help but wonder: Does a single day up North last for months?

'One Small Step' Act Encourages Protection of Human Heritage in Space
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On Dec. 31, the One Small Step to Protect Human Heritage in Space Act became law. However, it is also the first law enacted by any nation that recognizes the existence of human heritage in outer space. I believe that the One Small Step Act, enacted in a divisive political environment, demonstrates that space and preservation truly are nonpartisan, even unifying principles. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/ASUAdvertisementAdvertisementThe One Small Step ActThe One Small Step Act is true to its name. It's a small step.

Can Your Car Have Too Many Bumper Stickers?
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In the U.S., each state has different regulations governing the use of stickers on car windows. AdvertisementAdvertisementAccording to psychologist William Szlemko and a team of other researchers at Colorado State University, there's definitely such a thing as too many bumper stickers. That's because a study they conducted in 2008 found that the quantity of stickers on a car was a predictor of road rage. Bumper stickers represent a mainstream, and sometimes humorous, way for people to express themselves on every subject under the sun. But bumper stickers featuring profanity, a protected form of speech, occasionally lead to a citation or arrest.

Cheap Magnets Could Keep Sharks Out of Fishing Nets
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Countless sharks, sea turtles, seals, dolphins, rays and fish of all descriptions needlessly die before they can be thrown back overboard. Philippe Colombi/Getty ImagesWe kill 100 million sharks every year. We found that traps with magnets had roughly 30 percent less likelihood of catching sharks and rays compared to traps without. Win-wins are great, but we've got a long way to go before we make a dent in that 100 million sharks per year. The magnets seem to work well for traps, but magnets don't work on longlines — the lines are fitted with metal hooks, so the magnets tangle the gear.

The Mastodon Graveyard That Stole Thomas Jefferson's Heart
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\" \" Big Bone Lick National Park Mark ManciniFor the Sage of Monticello, science was a patriotic pursuit. In lieu of live specimens, Lewis sent the president a couple of new mastodon fossils from Big Bone Lick. In 1960, the Big Bone Lick fossil site was incorporated into a new state park. At the entrance, visitors are greeted by a sign that reads \"Big Bone Lick Historic Site: Birthplace of American Vertebrate Paleontology.\" Now That's Interesting The American mastodon was named Michigan's official state fossil in 2002 because its remains are common in the Lower Peninsula.

Crazy Common Things People Swallow (That They Shouldn’t)
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But every day, people swallow more mundane things that they shouldn't. \"In the adult population, they usually swallow the object by accidentally mixing it with their food,\" explains Farcy via email. Here are some of the most common, but dangerous, things adults swallow by accident:AdvertisementAdvertisement1. ToothpicksSwallowing a toothpick is not as common as you might think, but it's a serious situation if it happens. If the bones don't come out on their own though, an endoscopy might be required.

Who Decides What Goes on Postage Stamps?
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\" The Mister Rogers stamp from the U.S. Postal Service. Postal Service. Ever wonder who decides what appears on our postage stamps? \"Mister Rogers' Neighborhood\" was on the air from 1968 to 2001.

Are Small Modular Reactors the Future of Nuclear Power?
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According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration , nuclear power plants produced 19.6% of the total electricity generated in the U.S. in 2019. Over the last several years, however, there has been a decline in the number of operating nuclear power plants. If conventional nuclear power plants continue to be shuttered, then how will we replace this energy source? Nuclear reactors are, effectively, costly boilers.While the debate about nuclear power is contentious, one thing remains clear: it remains a critical part of our energy infrastructure. The continued development of SMR technologies may be an important and beneficial upgrade to commercial nuclear energy production.

Twitter Bots Are a Major Source of Climate Disinformation
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Twitter accounts run by machines are a major source of climate change disinformation that might drain support from policies to address rising temperatures. “Twitter bots have been this growing force of evil over a half a decade now,” said John Cook, a professor at George Mason University’s Center for Climate Change Communication who was not involved with the study. “Twitter bots have been a part of that.”Marlow’s team measured the influence of bots on Twitter’s climate conversation by analyzing 6.8 million tweets sent by 1.6 million users between May and June 2017. But those bots accounted for 25% of the total tweets about climate change on most days. The bots were also more prevalent in discussions on climate research and news.

A Step to Ease the Pandemic Mental Health Crisis
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For months a mental health crisis has accompanied the misery brought on by COVID-19. Meanwhile mental health services have been stretched worldwide. One reason is that mental health personnel and the facilities they work in have been reassigned to COVID-related tasks during the crisis. These techniques allow people to become mental health first responders. Mental health first aid is slightly different from psychological first aid because it is targeted at people experiencing issues even before a crisis erupts.

Farm Protests in India Are Writing the Green Revolution’s Obituary
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The move enraged farmers—especially in the northwestern state of Punjab, an epicenter of the Green Revolution since the 1950s. After protesting in vain for two months, tens of thousands of Punjab farmers began a march to New Delhi in late November. In a broader perspective, however, this agitation is writing the obituary of the Green Revolution. Underlying this broad base of discontent is the failure of the Green Revolution. In short, the Green Revolution secured cheap cereals in exchange for justice and ecological sustainability.

Forever Chemicals Are Widespread in U.S. Drinking Water
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“We're also being exposed to many more PFASs via the drinking water,” Wang says. Higgins notes that people are also exposed to the compounds in substances besides drinking water, such as household products and food. “Aggressively addressing PFAS in drinking water continues to be an active and ongoing priority for the EPA,” an EPA spokesperson wrote to Scientific American. “The agency has taken significant steps to monitor for PFAS in drinking water and is following the process provided under the Safe Drinking Water Act to address these chemicals.”Technologies to remove PFASs from drinking water exist on both household and municipal levels. Some states have instituted or proposed limits on PFASs in drinking water, but experts say federal action is needed to tackle such a widespread problem.

Here's Where to Find the Cleanest Air in the World
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\" \" The beautiful downtown area of Honolulu, Hawaii, has the best air quality of all cities in the world of similar size. Ozone pollution comes from gases like exhaust from tailpipes and smoke from factory chimneys. Particle pollution is mostly created by car and truck traffic, manufacturing, power plants and farming. Here are the top five major cities with the cleanest air in the world:Honolulu, HawaiiHalifax, CanadaAnchorage, AlaskaAuckland, New ZealandBrisbane, AustraliaWherever in the world they're located, the cleanest cities tend to have certain things in common. Now That's Interesting China's air pollution is so bad you can see it from space.

New Technology Turns a Sunny Day into Safe Water
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\" \" More than 2 billion people worldwide live without access to safe, clean water. As the problem is exacerbated by climate change, scientists have come up with a new solution using sunlight, a plentiful resource. That's enough drinking water for four people for one day. Ramping up production for large-scale purification is still in development, but this method is encouraging as an additional means of securing safe water for a growing population. It's time to see the future of clean water in a whole new light.

Anomaly Hunting and Boris Johnson's Phone Call
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The latest internet conspiracy theory involves a phone call between President Biden and Boris Johnson’s. The phone cable should be visible in the mirror descending from Boris Johnson’s watch, in this official Downing St picture. When I look at those pictures I absolutely see a phone cord, no problem. I can understand the initial reaction of – hey, where’s the phone cord in the mirror? They are about mystery mongering – look at that anomaly – and then attach a sinister implication to the anomaly.

Poor Kids In Developing Nations Are Geting Fatter Too - Because Food Is More Affordable
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In 1975, four percent of school-age kids were overweight and the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration says that was up to 18 percent in 2016. The Obama Administration's \"Science Czar\", John Holdren, Ph.D, even co-authored a book with famed doomsday prophet Paul Ehrlich, Ph.D, outlining their concerns. That keeps food costs low, which overwhelmingly benefits the poor, who can then use that excess money to live better lives. Yet people with choices will often choose pleasure, including buying a hamburger instead of overpriced quinoa.Will eating traditional Shuar lunch items make you thinner? Image: Samuel UrlacherThe paper finds that consuming more calories makes the difference rather than having less exercise.

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